Hull Plating is a secondary layer of protection that augments a ship's structural integrity by sacrificing cargo space.
By adding multiple Hull Plating augmentations, a ship of moderate hull protection can withstand weapons barrages by other ships more easily before having a hull breach.
A Sensor Dish is a highly-modified satellite dish that detects radiating subatomic particles and energy patterns from wherever the dish is facing.
One Sensor Dish alone is weak, but dishes forming an array have such precision in their detection that they can determine the exact lifeform count on a planet and map underground cave networks.
For any pilot needing to gather data, Sensor Dish upgrades are a must. Be warned, though, that they take up two cargo pods each.